By Peter Swirski
Swirski offers a set of insights into Stanislaw Lem, with the view to comparing his impression on Western concept, literature and tradition.
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Extra info for The Art and Science of Stanislaw Lem
Yet here's the place Lem, ever the paradox-monger, provides a good resolution, finally: now not within the lofty reviews of degraded initiatives yet within the travels of Ijon Tichy and the robotic fables, during which the Münchausen-like extravagance of narrative extra returns technology ﬁction to the folktale and the tall story, to the “organic stratum,” written in a language that's, in a feeling, shielded from the realm, maintaining the spirit of the nationwide language with out giving up wisdom of the area. This element of Lem, a lot as of Karel Cˇapek, is protected against universalizing critics like me, yet that's accurately what offers me nice convenience. This, certainly, could be the paradoxical present of the technological know-how ﬁction of valuable Europe. notes 1 See Headrickm The instruments of Empire. 2 Brian McHale argues in Postmodernist Fiction that postmodernism replaces modernism’s epistemological dominant (typiﬁed through detective ﬁction) with an ontological dominant (typiﬁed through technology ﬁction). He elaborates on technological know-how ﬁction’s privileges in developing Postmodernism, the place he identiﬁes cyberpunk because the essential postmodern style. i've got argued (in “An intricate Suggestion,” my overview of making Postmodernism) that technological know-how ﬁction isn't actually curious about ontology, because the many worlds it admits are a part of the only, albeit various and hugely malleable, immanent global of scientiﬁc materialism. To the level that there are signiﬁcant international changes, technological know-how ﬁction posits that they have been both created or came across (and as a result understood and 152 The style of Technological Empire appropriated) by means of expertise. McHale’s idea of postmodernism’s ontological dominant is reinforced, even though, if we take now not technology ﬁction however the significant because the privileged style of the age. magnificent ﬁction and its numerous slipstream hybrids don't require any ontological judgements concerning the prestige of the imaginary worlds. three In 1923 R. U. R. was once mentioned on degree in London by way of a panel that incorporated Chesterton and G. B. Shaw. ˇ apek, see Swirski, bankruptcy four. four On C five at the heritage of Soviet “socialist” technological know-how, see Buccholz, Graham, and Greenberg. nine Lem on movie KRZYSZTOF LOSKA whether the tale is still a similar, it really is most unlikely for a ﬁlm to rouse the actual signal procedure hired in a literary paintings. it truly is for that reason an important to remember that the method of adapting a ebook contains determining the weather that are supposed to be transposed right into a ﬁlm, instead of following a literary unique to the letter. based on Alicja Helman, a ﬁlm variation signifies that a literary textual content has been completely learn, even if planned alterations and alterations made via a ﬁlm director introduce meanings that will not were meant by way of a author. 1 A ﬁlmmaker grafts the unique fabric right into a new context that, with regards to Lem’s works, isn't just the context of technological know-how ﬁction but additionally that of a horror ﬁlm, a mental drama, or a detective tale. because the complete scope of Lem’s works includes a very good number of genres, I shall specialise in the main signiﬁcant difficulties that needs to be solved by means of ﬁlmmakers adapting his novels.